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Kubernetes Ingress Provider

Traefik can be configured to use Kubernetes Ingress as a provider.

See also Kubernetes user guide.

Configuration

################################################################
# Kubernetes Ingress Provider
################################################################

# Enable Kubernetes Ingress Provider.
[kubernetes]

# Kubernetes server endpoint.
#
# Optional for in-cluster configuration, required otherwise.
# Default: empty
#
# endpoint = "http://localhost:8080"

# Bearer token used for the Kubernetes client configuration.
#
# Optional
# Default: empty
#
# token = "my token"

# Path to the certificate authority file.
# Used for the Kubernetes client configuration.
#
# Optional
# Default: empty
#
# certAuthFilePath = "/my/ca.crt"

# Array of namespaces to watch.
#
# Optional
# Default: all namespaces (empty array).
#
# namespaces = ["default", "production"]

# Ingress label selector to filter Ingress objects that should be processed.
#
# Optional
# Default: empty (process all Ingresses)
#
# labelselector = "A and not B"

# Value of `kubernetes.io/ingress.class` annotation that identifies Ingress objects to be processed.
# If the parameter is non-empty, only Ingresses containing an annotation with the same value are processed.
# Otherwise, Ingresses missing the annotation, having an empty value, or the value `traefik` are processed.
#
# Optional
# Default: empty
#
# ingressClass = "traefik-internal"

# Disable PassHost Headers.
#
# Optional
# Default: false
#
# disablePassHostHeaders = true

# Enable PassTLSCert Headers.
#
# Optional
# Default: false
#
# enablePassTLSCert = true

# Override default configuration template.
#
# Optional
# Default: <built-in template>
#
# filename = "kubernetes.tmpl"

# Enable IngressEndpoint configuration.
# This will allow Traefik to update the status section of ingress objects, if desired.
#
# Optional
#
# [kubernetes.ingressEndpoint]
#
# At least one must be configured.
# `publishedservice` will override the `hostname` and `ip` settings if configured.
#
# hostname = "localhost"
# ip = "127.0.0.1"
# publishedService = "namespace/servicename"

endpoint

The Kubernetes server endpoint as URL.

When deployed into Kubernetes, Traefik will read the environment variables KUBERNETES_SERVICE_HOST and KUBERNETES_SERVICE_PORT to construct the endpoint.

The access token will be looked up in /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token and the SSL CA certificate in /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt. Both are provided mounted automatically when deployed inside Kubernetes.

The endpoint may be specified to override the environment variable values inside a cluster.

When the environment variables are not found, Traefik will try to connect to the Kubernetes API server with an external-cluster client. In this case, the endpoint is required. Specifically, it may be set to the URL used by kubectl proxy to connect to a Kubernetes cluster using the granted authentication and authorization of the associated kubeconfig.

labelselector

By default, Traefik processes all Ingress objects in the configured namespaces. A label selector can be defined to filter on specific Ingress objects only.

See label-selectors for details.

ingressEndpoint

You can configure a static hostname or IP address that Traefik will add to the status section of Ingress objects that it manages. If you prefer, you can provide a service, which traefik will copy the status spec from. This will give more flexibility in cloud/dynamic environments.

TLS communication between Traefik and backend pods

Traefik automatically requests endpoint information based on the service provided in the ingress spec. Although traefik will connect directly to the endpoints (pods), it still checks the service port to see if TLS communication is required.

There are 3 ways to configure Traefik to use https to communicate with backend pods:

  1. If the service port defined in the ingress spec is 443 (note that you can still use targetPort to use a different port on your pod).
  2. If the service port defined in the ingress spec has a name that starts with https (such as https-api, https-web or just https).
  3. If the ingress spec includes the annotation ingress.kubernetes.io/protocol: https.

If either of those configuration options exist, then the backend communication protocol is assumed to be TLS, and will connect via TLS automatically.

Note

Please note that by enabling TLS communication between traefik and your pods, you will have to have trusted certificates that have the proper trust chain and IP subject name. If this is not an option, you may need to skip TLS certificate verification. See the insecureSkipVerify setting for more details.

Annotations

General annotations

The following general annotations are applicable on the Ingress object:

Annotation Description
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/app-root: "/index.html" Redirects all requests for / to the defined path. (1)
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/error-pages: <YML> See custom error pages section. (2)
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/frontend-entry-points: http,https Override the default frontend endpoints.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/pass-client-tls-cert: <YML> Forward the client certificate following the configuration in YAML. (3)
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/pass-tls-cert: "true" Override the default frontend PassTLSCert value. Default: false.(DEPRECATED)
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/preserve-host: "true" Forward client Host header to the backend.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/priority: "3" Override the default frontend rule priority.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/rate-limit: <YML> See rate limiting section. (4)
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-entry-point: https Enables Redirect to another entryPoint for that frontend (e.g. HTTPS).
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-permanent: "true" Return 301 instead of 302.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-regex: ^http://localhost/(.*) Redirect to another URL for that frontend. Must be set with traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-replacement.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-replacement: http://mydomain/$1 Redirect to another URL for that frontend. Must be set with traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-regex.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/request-modifier: AddPrefix: /users Adds a request modifier to the backend request.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /users Replaces each matched Ingress path with the specified one, and adds the old path to the X-Replaced-Path header.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/rule-type: PathPrefixStrip Overrides the default frontend rule type. Only path-related matchers can be specified (Path, PathPrefix, PathStrip, PathPrefixStrip).(5)
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/service-weights: <YML> Set ingress backend weights specified as percentage or decimal numbers in YAML. (6)
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/whitelist-source-range: "1.2.3.0/24, fe80::/16" A comma-separated list of IP ranges permitted for access (7).
ingress.kubernetes.io/whitelist-x-forwarded-for: "true" Use X-Forwarded-For header as valid source of IP for the white list.
ingress.kubernetes.io/protocol:<NAME> Set the protocol Traefik will use to communicate with pods. Acceptable protocols: http,https,h2c

<1> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/app-root: Non-root paths will not be affected by this annotation and handled normally. This annotation may not be combined with other redirect annotations. Trying to do so will result in the other redirects being ignored. This annotation can be used in combination with traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-permanent to configure whether the app-root redirect is a 301 or a 302.

<2> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/error-pages example:

foo:
  status:
  - "404"
  backend: bar
  query: /bar
fii:
  status:
  - "503"
  - "500"
  backend: bar
  query: /bir

<3> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/pass-client-tls-cert example:

# add escaped pem in the `X-Forwarded-Tls-Client-Cert` header
pem: true
# add escaped certificate following infos in the `X-Forwarded-Tls-Client-Cert-Infos` header
infos:
  notafter: true
  notbefore: true
  sans: true
  subject:
    country: true
    province: true
    locality: true
    organization: true
    commonname: true
    serialnumber: true

If pem is set, it will add a X-Forwarded-Tls-Client-Cert header that contains the escaped pem as value.
If at least one flag of the infos part is set, it will add a X-Forwarded-Tls-Client-Cert-Infos header that contains an escaped string composed of the client certificate data selected by the infos flags. This infos part is composed like the following example (not escaped): Subject="C=FR,ST=SomeState,L=Lyon,O=Cheese,CN=*.cheese.org",NB=1531900816,NA=1563436816,SAN=*.cheese.org,*.cheese.net,cheese.in,[email protected],[email protected],10.0.1.0,10.0.1.2

<4> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/rate-limit example:

extractorfunc: client.ip
rateset:
  bar:
    period: 3s
    average: 6
    burst: 9
  foo:
    period: 6s
    average: 12
    burst: 18

<5> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/rule-type Note: ReplacePath is deprecated in this annotation, use the traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/request-modifier annotation instead. Default: PathPrefix.

<6> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/service-weights: Service weights enable to split traffic across multiple backing services in a fine-grained manner.

Example:

service_backend1: 12.50%
service_backend2: 12.50%
service_backend3: 75 # Same as 75%, the percentage sign is optional

A single service backend definition may be omitted; in this case, Traefik auto-completes that service backend to 100% automatically. Conveniently, users need not bother to compute the percentage remainder for a main service backend. For instance, in the example above service_backend3 does not need to be specified to be assigned 75%.

Note

For each service weight given, the Ingress specification must include a backend item with the corresponding serviceName and (if given) matching path.

Currently, 3 decimal places for the weight are supported. An attempt to exceed the precision should be avoided as it may lead to percentage computation flaws and, in consequence, Ingress parsing errors.

For each path definition, this annotation will fail if:

  • the sum of backend weights exceeds 100% or
  • the sum of backend weights is less than 100% without one or more omitted backends

See also the user guide section traffic splitting.

<7> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/whitelist-source-range: All source IPs are permitted if the list is empty or a single range is ill-formatted. Please note, you may have to set service.spec.externalTrafficPolicy to the value Local to preserve the source IP of the request for filtering. Please see this link for more information.

Note

Please note that traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-regex and traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-replacement do not have to be set if traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/redirect-entry-point is defined for the redirection (they will not be used in this case).

The following annotations are applicable on the Service object associated with a particular Ingress object:

Annotation Description
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/buffering: <YML> (1) See the buffering section.
traefik.backend.loadbalancer.sticky: "true" Enable backend sticky sessions (DEPRECATED).
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/affinity: "true" Enable backend sticky sessions.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/circuit-breaker-expression: <expression> Set the circuit breaker expression for the backend.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/responseforwarding-flushinterval: "10ms Defines the interval between two flushes when forwarding response from backend to client.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/load-balancer-method: drr Override the default wrr load balancer algorithm.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/max-conn-amount: "10" Sets the maximum number of simultaneous connections to the backend.
Must be used in conjunction with the label below to take effect.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/max-conn-extractor-func: client.ip Set the function to be used against the request to determine what to limit maximum connections to the backend by.
Must be used in conjunction with the above label to take effect.
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/session-cookie-name: <NAME> Manually set the cookie name for sticky sessions.

<1> traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/buffering example:

maxrequestbodybytes: 10485760
memrequestbodybytes: 2097153
maxresponsebodybytes: 10485761
memresponsebodybytes: 2097152
retryexpression: IsNetworkError() && Attempts() <= 2

Note

traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/ and ingress.kubernetes.io/ are supported prefixes.

Custom Headers Annotations

Annotation Description
ingress.kubernetes.io/custom-request-headers: EXPR Provides the container with custom request headers that will be appended to each request forwarded to the container. Format: HEADER:value||HEADER2:value2
ingress.kubernetes.io/custom-response-headers: EXPR Appends the headers to each response returned by the container, before forwarding the response to the client. Format: HEADER:value||HEADER2:value2

Security Headers Annotations

The following security annotations are applicable on the Ingress object:

Annotation Description
ingress.kubernetes.io/allowed-hosts: EXPR Provides a list of allowed hosts that requests will be processed. Format: Host1,Host2
ingress.kubernetes.io/browser-xss-filter: "true" Adds the X-XSS-Protection header with the value 1; mode=block.
ingress.kubernetes.io/content-security-policy: VALUE Adds CSP Header with the custom value.
ingress.kubernetes.io/content-type-nosniff: "true" Adds the X-Content-Type-Options header with the value nosniff.
ingress.kubernetes.io/custom-browser-xss-value: VALUE Set custom value for X-XSS-Protection header. This overrides the BrowserXssFilter option.
ingress.kubernetes.io/custom-frame-options-value: VALUE Overrides the X-Frame-Options header with the custom value.
ingress.kubernetes.io/force-hsts: "false" Adds the STS header to non-SSL requests.
ingress.kubernetes.io/frame-deny: "true" Adds the X-Frame-Options header with the value of DENY.
ingress.kubernetes.io/hsts-max-age: "315360000" Sets the max-age of the HSTS header.
ingress.kubernetes.io/hsts-include-subdomains: "true" Adds the IncludeSubdomains section of the STS header.
ingress.kubernetes.io/hsts-preload: "true" Adds the preload flag to the HSTS header.
ingress.kubernetes.io/is-development: "false" This will cause the AllowedHosts, SSLRedirect, and STSSeconds/STSIncludeSubdomains options to be ignored during development.
When deploying to production, be sure to set this to false.
ingress.kubernetes.io/proxy-headers: EXPR Provides a list of headers that the proxied hostname may be stored. Format: HEADER1,HEADER2
ingress.kubernetes.io/public-key: VALUE Adds HPKP header.
ingress.kubernetes.io/referrer-policy: VALUE Adds referrer policy header.
ingress.kubernetes.io/ssl-redirect: "true" Forces the frontend to redirect to SSL if a non-SSL request is sent.
ingress.kubernetes.io/ssl-temporary-redirect: "true" Forces the frontend to redirect to SSL if a non-SSL request is sent, but by sending a 302 instead of a 301.
ingress.kubernetes.io/ssl-host: HOST This setting configures the hostname that redirects will be based on. Default is "", which is the same host as the request.
ingress.kubernetes.io/ssl-force-host: "true" If SSLForceHost is true and SSLHost is set, requests will be forced to use SSLHost even the ones that are already using SSL. Default is false.
ingress.kubernetes.io/ssl-proxy-headers: EXPR Header combinations that would signify a proper SSL Request (Such as X-Forwarded-For:https). Format: HEADER:value||HEADER2:value2

Authentication

Additional authentication annotations can be added to the Ingress object. The source of the authentication is a Secret object that contains the credentials.

Annotation basic digest forward Description
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-type: basic x x x Contains the authentication type: basic, digest, forward.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-secret: mysecret x x Name of Secret containing the username and password with access to the paths defined in the Ingress object.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-remove-header: true x x If set to true removes the Authorization header.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-header-field: X-WebAuth-User x x Pass Authenticated user to application via headers.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-url: https://example.com x The URL of the authentication server.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-trust-headers: false x Trust X-Forwarded-* headers.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-response-headers: X-Auth-User, X-Secret x Copy headers from the authentication server to the request.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-tls-secret: secret x Name of Secret containing the certificate and key for the forward auth.
ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-tls-insecure x If set to true invalid SSL certificates are accepted.

The secret must be created in the same namespace as the Ingress object.

The following limitations hold for basic/digest auth:

  • The realm is not configurable; the only supported (and default) value is traefik.
  • The Secret must contain a single file only.

TLS certificates management

TLS certificates can be managed in Secrets objects. More information are available in the User Guide.

Note

Only TLS certificates provided by users can be stored in Kubernetes Secrets. Let's Encrypt certificates cannot be managed in Kubernets Secrets yet.

Global Default Backend Ingresses

Ingresses can be created that look like the following:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: cheese
spec:
  backend:
    serviceName: stilton
    servicePort: 80

This ingress follows the Global Default Backend property of ingresses. This will allow users to create a "default backend" that will match all unmatched requests.

Note

Due to Traefik's use of priorities, you may have to set this ingress priority lower than other ingresses in your environment, to avoid this global ingress from satisfying requests that could match other ingresses. To do this, use the traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/priority annotation (as seen in General Annotations) on your ingresses accordingly.