Traefik & Kubernetes¶
The Kubernetes Ingress Controller, The Custom Resource Way.
Traefik used to support Kubernetes only through the Kubernetes Ingress provider, which is a Kubernetes Ingress controller in the strict sense of the term.
However, as the community expressed the need to benefit from Traefik features without resorting to (lots of) annotations, we ended up writing a Custom Resource Definition (alias CRD in the following) for an IngressRoute type, defined below, in order to provide a better way to configure access to a Kubernetes cluster.
See the dedicated section in routing.
LetsEncrypt Support with the Custom Resource Definition Provider¶
By design, Traefik is a stateless application, meaning that it only derives its configuration from the environment it runs in, without additional configuration. For this reason, users can run multiple instances of Traefik at the same time to achieve HA, as is a common pattern in the kubernetes ecosystem.
When using a single instance of Traefik with LetsEncrypt, no issues should be encountered, however this could be a single point of failure. Unfortunately, it is not possible to run multiple instances of Traefik 2.0 with LetsEncrypt enabled, because there is no way to ensure that the correct instance of Traefik will receive the challenge request, and subsequent responses. Previous versions of Traefik used a KV store to attempt to achieve this, but due to sub-optimal performance was dropped as a feature in 2.0.
If you require LetsEncrypt with HA in a kubernetes environment, we recommend using TraefikEE where distributed LetsEncrypt is a supported feature.
If you are wanting to continue to run Traefik Community Edition, LetsEncrypt HA can be achieved by using a Certificate Controller such as Cert-Manager. When using Cert-Manager to manage certificates, it will create secrets in your namespaces that can be referenced as TLS secrets in your ingress objects. When using the Traefik Kubernetes CRD Provider, unfortunately Cert-Manager cannot interface directly with the CRDs yet, but this is being worked on by our team. A workaround it to enable the Kubernetes Ingress provider to allow Cert-Manager to create ingress objects to complete the challenges. Please note that this still requires manual intervention to create the certificates through Cert-Manager, but once created, Cert-Manager will keep the certificate renewed.
[providers.kubernetesCRD] endpoint = "http://localhost:8080" # ...
providers: kubernetesCRD: endpoint = "http://localhost:8080" # ...
The Kubernetes server endpoint as URL.
When deployed into Kubernetes, Traefik will read the environment variables
KUBECONFIG to construct the endpoint.
The access token will be looked up in
/var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token and the SSL CA certificate in
Both are provided mounted automatically when deployed inside Kubernetes.
The endpoint may be specified to override the environment variable values inside a cluster.
When the environment variables are not found, Traefik will try to connect to the Kubernetes API server with an external-cluster client.
In this case, the endpoint is required.
Specifically, it may be set to the URL used by
kubectl proxy to connect to a Kubernetes cluster using the granted authentication and authorization of the associated kubeconfig.
[providers.kubernetesCRD] token = "mytoken" # ...
providers: kubernetesCRD: token = "mytoken" # ...
Bearer token used for the Kubernetes client configuration.
[providers.kubernetesCRD] certAuthFilePath = "/my/ca.crt" # ...
providers: kubernetesCRD: certAuthFilePath: "/my/ca.crt" # ...
Path to the certificate authority file. Used for the Kubernetes client configuration.
Optional, Default: all namespaces (empty array)
[providers.kubernetesCRD] namespaces = ["default", "production"] # ...
providers: kubernetesCRD: namespaces: - "default" - "production" # ...
Array of namespaces to watch.
Optional,Default: empty (process all Ingresses)
[providers.kubernetesCRD] labelselector = "A and not B" # ...
providers: kubernetesCRD: labelselector: "A and not B" # ...
--providers.kubernetescrd.labelselector="A and not B"
By default, Traefik processes all Ingress objects in the configured namespaces. A label selector can be defined to filter on specific Ingress objects only.
See label-selectors for details.
Optional, Default: empty
[providers.kubernetesCRD] ingressClass = "traefik-internal" # ...
providers: kubernetesCRD: ingressClass: "traefik-internal" # ...
kubernetes.io/ingress.class annotation that identifies Ingress objects to be processed.
If the parameter is non-empty, only Ingresses containing an annotation with the same value are processed.
Otherwise, Ingresses missing the annotation, having an empty value, or the value
traefik are processed.
Optional, Default: 0 (no throttling)
[providers.kubernetesCRD] throttleDuration = "10s" # ...
providers: kubernetesCRD: throttleDuration: "10s" # ...
Also see the full example with Let's Encrypt.