Overview

What's Happening to the Requests?

Let's zoom in on Traefik's architecture and talk about the components that enable the routes to be created.

First, when you start Traefik, you define entrypoints (in their most basic forms, they are port numbers). Then, connected to these entrypoints, routers analyze the incoming requests to see if they match a set of rules. If they do, the router might transform the request using pieces of middleware before forwarding them to your services.

Architecture

Clear Responsibilities

  • Providers discover the services that live on your infrastructure (their IP, health, ...)
  • Entrypoints listen for incoming traffic (ports, ...)
  • Routers analyse the requests (host, path, headers, SSL, ...)
  • Services forward the request to your services (load balancing, ...)
  • Middlewares may update the request or make decisions based on the request (authentication, rate limiting, headers, ...)

Example with a File Provider

Below is an example of a full configuration file for the file provider that forwards http://domain/whoami/ requests to a service reachable on http://private/whoami-service/. In the process, Traefik will make sure that the user is authenticated (using the BasicAuth middleware).

Static configuration:

[entryPoints]
  [entryPoints.web]
    # Listen on port 8081 for incoming requests
    address = ":8081"

[providers]
  # Enable the file provider to define routers / middlewares / services in a file
  [providers.file]
    filename = "dynamic_conf.toml"
entryPoints:
  web:
    # Listen on port 8081 for incoming requests
    address: :8081

providers:
  # Enable the file provider to define routers / middlewares / services in a file
  file:
    filename: dynamic_conf.yml
# Listen on port 8081 for incoming requests
--entryPoints.web.address=:8081

# Enable the file provider to define routers / middlewares / services in a file
--providers.file.filename=dynamic_conf.toml

Dynamic configuration:

# http routing section
[http]
  [http.routers]
     # Define a connection between requests and services
     [http.routers.to-whoami]
      rule = "Host(`domain`) && PathPrefix(`/whoami/`)"
      # If the rule matches, applies the middleware
      middlewares = ["test-user"]
      # If the rule matches, forward to the whoami service (declared below)
      service = "whoami"

  [http.middlewares]
    # Define an authentication mechanism
    [http.middlewares.test-user.basicAuth]
      users = ["test:$apr1$H6uskkkW$IgXLP6ewTrSuBkTrqE8wj/"]

  [http.services]
    # Define how to reach an existing service on our infrastructure
    [http.services.whoami.loadBalancer]
      [[http.services.whoami.loadBalancer.servers]]
        url = "http://private/whoami-service"
# http routing section
http:
  routers:
    # Define a connection between requests and services
    to-whoami:
      rule: "Host(`domain`) && PathPrefix(`/whoami/`)"
       # If the rule matches, applies the middleware
      middlewares:
      - test-user
      # If the rule matches, forward to the whoami service (declared below)
      service: whoami

  middlewares:
    # Define an authentication mechanism
    test-user:
      basicAuth:
        users:
        - test:$apr1$H6uskkkW$IgXLP6ewTrSuBkTrqE8wj/

  services:
    # Define how to reach an existing service on our infrastructure
    whoami:
      loadBalancer:
        servers:
        - url: http://private/whoami-service

In this example, we use the file provider. Even if it is one of the least magical way of configuring Traefik, it explicitly describes every available notion.

HTTP / TCP

In this example, we've defined routing rules for http requests only. Traefik also supports TCP requests. To add TCP routers and TCP services, declare them in a TCP section like in the following.

Adding a TCP route for TLS requests on whoami.traefik.io

Static Configuration

[entryPoints]
  [entryPoints.web]
    # Listen on port 8081 for incoming requests
    address = ":8081"

[providers]
  # Enable the file provider to define routers / middlewares / services in a file
  [providers.file]
    filename = "dynamic_conf.toml"
entryPoints:
  web:
    # Listen on port 8081 for incoming requests
    address: :8081
providers:
  # Enable the file provider to define routers / middlewares / services in a file
  file:
    filename: dynamic_conf.yml
# Listen on port 8081 for incoming requests
--entryPoints.web.address=:8081

# Enable the file provider to define routers / middlewares / services in a file
--providers.file.filename=dynamic_conf.toml

Dynamic Configuration

# http routing section
[http]
  [http.routers]
    # Define a connection between requests and services
    [http.routers.to-whoami]
      rule = "Host(`domain`) && PathPrefix(`/whoami/`)"
      # If the rule matches, applies the middleware
      middlewares = ["test-user"]
      # If the rule matches, forward to the whoami service (declared below)
      service = "whoami"

  [http.middlewares]
     # Define an authentication mechanism
     [http.middlewares.test-user.basicAuth]
       users = ["test:$apr1$H6uskkkW$IgXLP6ewTrSuBkTrqE8wj/"]

  [http.services]
     # Define how to reach an existing service on our infrastructure
     [http.services.whoami.loadBalancer]
       [[http.services.whoami.loadBalancer.servers]]
         url = "http://private/whoami-service"

[tcp]
  [tcp.routers]
    [tcp.routers.to-whoami-tcp]
      rule = "HostSNI(`whoami-tcp.traefik.io`)"
      service = "whoami-tcp"
      [tcp.routers.to-whoami-tcp.tls]

  [tcp.services]
    [tcp.services.whoami-tcp.loadBalancer]
      [[tcp.services.whoami-tcp.loadBalancer.servers]]
        address = "xx.xx.xx.xx:xx"
# http routing section
http:

  routers:
    # Define a connection between requests and services
    to-whoami:
      rule: Host(`domain`) && PathPrefix(`/whoami/`)
      # If the rule matches, applies the middleware
      middlewares:
      - test-user
      # If the rule matches, forward to the whoami service (declared below)
      service: whoami

  middlewares:
    # Define an authentication mechanism
    test-user:
      basicAuth:
        users:
        - test:$apr1$H6uskkkW$IgXLP6ewTrSuBkTrqE8wj/

  services:
    # Define how to reach an existing service on our infrastructure
    whoami:
      loadBalancer:
        servers:
        - url: http://private/whoami-service
tcp:

  routers:
    to-whoami-tcp:
      service: whoami-tcp
      rule: HostSNI(`whoami-tcp.traefik.io`)

  services:
    whoami-tcp:
      loadBalancer:
        servers:
        - address: xx.xx.xx.xx:xx

Transport configuration

Most of what happens to the connection between the clients and Traefik, and then between Traefik and the backend servers, is configured through the entrypoints and the routers.

In addition, a few parameters are dedicated to configuring globally what happens with the connections between Traefik and the backends. This is done through the serversTransport section of the configuration, which features these options:

insecureSkipVerify

Optional, Default=false

insecureSkipVerify disables SSL certificate verification.

## Static configuration
[serversTransport]
  insecureSkipVerify = true
## Static configuration
serversTransport:
  insecureSkipVerify: true
## Static configuration
--serversTransport.insecureSkipVerify=true

rootCAs

Optional

rootCAs is the list of certificates (as file paths, or data bytes) that will be set as Root Certificate Authorities when using a self-signed TLS certificate.

## Static configuration
[serversTransport]
  rootCAs = ["foo.crt", "bar.crt"]
## Static configuration
serversTransport:
  rootCAs:
    - foo.crt
    - bar.crt
## Static configuration
--serversTransport.rootCAs=foo.crt,bar.crt

maxIdleConnsPerHost

Optional, Default=2

If non-zero, maxIdleConnsPerHost controls the maximum idle (keep-alive) connections to keep per-host.

## Static configuration
[serversTransport]
  maxIdleConnsPerHost = 7
## Static configuration
serversTransport:
  maxIdleConnsPerHost: 7
## Static configuration
--serversTransport.maxIdleConnsPerHost=7

forwardingTimeouts

forwardingTimeouts is about a number of timeouts relevant to when forwarding requests to the backend servers.

forwardingTimeouts.dialTimeout`

Optional, Default=30s

dialTimeout is the maximum duration allowed for a connection to a backend server to be established. Zero means no timeout.

## Static configuration
[serversTransport.forwardingTimeouts]
  dialTimeout = "1s"
## Static configuration
serversTransport:
  forwardingTimeouts:
    dialTimeout: 1s
## Static configuration
--serversTransport.forwardingTimeouts.dialTimeout=1s

forwardingTimeouts.responseHeaderTimeout`

Optional, Default=0s

responseHeaderTimeout, if non-zero, specifies the amount of time to wait for a server's response headers after fully writing the request (including its body, if any). This time does not include the time to read the response body. Zero means no timeout.

## Static configuration
[serversTransport.forwardingTimeouts]
  responseHeaderTimeout = "1s"
## Static configuration
serversTransport:
  forwardingTimeouts:
    responseHeaderTimeout: 1s
## Static configuration
--serversTransport.forwardingTimeouts.responseHeaderTimeout=1s

forwardingTimeouts.idleConnTimeout`

Optional, Default=90s

idleConnTimeout, is the maximum amount of time an idle (keep-alive) connection will remain idle before closing itself. Zero means no limit.

## Static configuration
[serversTransport.forwardingTimeouts]
  idleConnTimeout = "1s"
## Static configuration
serversTransport:
  forwardingTimeouts:
    idleConnTimeout: 1s
## Static configuration
--serversTransport.forwardingTimeouts.idleConnTimeout=1s